Infiltration, Runoff and Hydrographs

Question 1
A two-hour duration storm event with uniform excess rainfall of 3 cm occurred on a watershed. The ordinates of streamflow hydrograph resulting from this event are given in the table.
\begin{array}{|c|c|c|c|c|c|c|c|c|}\hline \text{Time (hours)}& 0&1 &2 &3 &4 &5 &6 &7 \\ \hline \text{Streamflow}(m^3/s)& 10 &16 & 34 &40 & 31 & 25 &16&10 \\ \hline \end{array}
Considering a constant baseflow of 10 m^3/s , the peak flow ordinate (in m^3/s ) of one-hour unit hydrograph for the watershed is ________ . (in integer)
A
12
B
14
C
22
D
18
GATE CE 2022 SET-1   Engineering Hydrology
Question 1 Explanation: 
C_1 = Time
C_2 = Ordinates of 2hr DRH
C_3 = Ordinates of 2hr UH=(Ordinates of 2hr DRH)/(Rianfall excess of 3cm)
C_4 = S-curve lag by 2hr
C_5 = S-curve ordinates S_2
C_6 = S_1 curve
C_7 = Ordinates of 1hr UH = \frac{S_2-S-1}{1/2}
\begin{array}{|c|c|c|c|c|c|c|} \hline C_1& C_2& C_3& C_4& C_5& C_6&C_7 \\ \hline 0&0 &0 &- &0 &- & 0\\ \hline 1&6 & 2& -&2 & 0& 4\\ \hline 2&24 & 8&0 &8 & 2&12 \\ \hline 3&30 &10 &2 &12 &8 &8 \\ \hline 4&21 & 7& 8& 15& 12& 6\\ \hline 5&15 &5 & 12& 17& 15& 4\\ \hline 6&6 & 2& 15& 17&17& 0\\ \hline 7 &0 & 0& 17& 17& 17&0\\ \hline & & & 17& 17& 17&0\\ \hline \end{array}
Question 2
The hyetograph in the figure corresponds to a rainfall event of 3 cm.

If the rainfall event has produced a direct runoff of 1.6 cm, the \phi-index of the event (in mm/hour,round off to one decimal place) would be
A
1.2
B
4.2
C
3.4
D
2.8
GATE CE 2021 SET-2   Engineering Hydrology
Question 2 Explanation: 


\begin{aligned} \text { Total rainfall } &=3 \mathrm{~cm} \\ \text { Total runoff } &=1.6 \mathrm{~cm} \\ \therefore \qquad \qquad \qquad\text { Total infiltration } &=3-1.6=1.4 \mathrm{~cm}\\ \therefore \qquad \qquad \qquad \qquad\qquad\text { W-index }&=\frac{\text { Total infiltration }}{\text { Total duration of storm }}\\ &=\frac{1.4}{(210 / 60)} \mathrm{cm} / \mathrm{hr} \\ &=0.4 \mathrm{~cm} / \mathrm{hr}=4 \mathrm{~mm} / \mathrm{hr}\\ \text { As } \phi \text { -index }>\text { W-index }\qquad \qquad \end{aligned}
Hence storm of intensities 4 mm/hr and 3 mm/hr will not produce rainfall exam.
\begin{aligned} \phi \text { -index } &=\frac{\text { Total infiltration in which rainfall excess occur }}{\text { Time period in which rainfall excess occur }} \\ &=\frac{\text { Total infiltration }-\text { Infiltration in which no rainfall excess occur }}{T_{\text {excess }}} \\ &=\frac{14 \mathrm{~mm}-\left(4 \times \frac{30}{60}+3 \times \frac{30}{60}\right) \mathrm{mm}}{\left(\frac{150}{60}\right) \mathrm{hr}} \\ &=4.2 \mathrm{~mm} / \mathrm{hr} \end{aligned}
Question 3
A 12-hour unit hydrograph (of 1 cm excess rainfall) of a catchment is of a triangular shape with a base width of 144 hour and a peak discharge of 23 \mathrm{~m}^{3} / \mathrm{s}. The area of the catchment (in \mathrm{~km}^{2},round off to the nearest integer) is _______
A
412
B
632
C
596
D
128
GATE CE 2021 SET-2   Engineering Hydrology
Question 3 Explanation: 


Area of hydrograph = Total direct runoff volume
\begin{aligned} \Rightarrow \frac{1}{2} \times 23 \mathrm{~m}^{3} / \mathrm{sec} \times 144 \times &3600 \mathrm{sec}=\text { Area of catchment } \times \text { Runoff depth }\\ \Rightarrow \frac{1}{2} \times 23 \times 144 \times 3600 \mathrm{~m}^{3} &=A \times \frac{1}{100} \mathrm{~m} \\ A &=596.16 \times 10^{6} \mathrm{~m}^{2} \\ \therefore \quad \text{ Area of catchment }&=596.16 \mathrm{~km}^{2} \end{aligned}
Question 4
The value of abscissa (x) and ordinate (y) of a curve are as follows:
\begin{array}{|c|c|} \hline x & y \\ \hline 2.0 & 5.00 \\ \hline 2.5 & 7.25 \\ \hline 3.0 & 10.00 \\ \hline 3.5 & 13.25 \\ \hline 4.0 & 17.00 \\ \hline \end{array}
By Simpson's 1 / 3^{\mathrm{rd}} rule, the area under the curve (round off to two decimal places) is ______________
A
20.67
B
54.62
C
38.45
D
66.22
GATE CE 2021 SET-1   Engineering Hydrology
Question 4 Explanation: 
d = 0.5 unit


\begin{aligned} A &=\frac{d}{3}\left[\left(y_{1}+y_{5}\right)+4\left(y_{2}+y_{4}\right)+2 y_{3}\right] \\ &=\frac{0.5}{3}[(5+17)+4(7.25+13.25)+2 \times 10] \\ &=20.67 \text { unit }^{2} \end{aligned}
Question 5
A triangular direct runoff hydrograph due to a storm has a time base of 90 hours. The peak flow of 60 m^3/s occurs at 20 hours from the start of the storm. The area of catchment is 300 km^2. The rainfall excess of the storm (in cm), is
A
2
B
3.24
C
5.4
D
6.48
GATE CE 2020 SET-2   Engineering Hydrology
Question 5 Explanation: 


\left [ \frac{\frac{1}{2} \times 60 m^3/s \times 90 \times 3600s}{300 \times 10^6m^2} \times 100 \right ]cm= Rainfall excess
Rainfall excess = 3.24 cm
Question 6
The probability that a 50 year flood may NOT occur at all during 25 years life of a project (round off to two decimal places), is _______.
A
0.6
B
0.25
C
0.78
D
0.44
GATE CE 2020 SET-1   Engineering Hydrology
Question 6 Explanation: 
\begin{aligned} P&=\frac{1}{T}=\frac{1}{50}=0.02 \\ q&=1-P=0.98 \end{aligned}
\therefore \; Probability of non-occurance of an event is given by
\begin{aligned} \text{Assurance} &= q^n \\ &= (0.98)^{25}\\ &= 0.603 \end{aligned}
Question 7
The ordinates, u, of a 2-hour unit hydrograph (i.e., for 1 cm of effective rain), for a catchment are shown in the table.
A 6-hour storm occurs over the catchment such that the effective rainfall intensity is 1 cm/hour for the first two hours, zero for the next two hours, and 0.5 cm/hour for the last two hours. If the base flow is constant at 5 m^3/s, the peak flow due to this storm (in m^3/s,round off to 1 decimal place) will be _____
A
45.6
B
74.6
C
64.3
D
97.0
GATE CE 2019 SET-2   Engineering Hydrology
Question 7 Explanation: 
Rainfall excess in 1st two hours,
R_1=1cm/hr \times 2 hr=2cm
Rainfall excess in 2nd two hours
R_2=0
Rainfall excess in 3rd two hours,
R_3=0.5cm/hr \times 2 hr=1cm

Question 8
An inflow hydrograph is routed through a reservoir to produce an outflow hydrograph. The peak flow of the inflow hydrograph is P_I and the time of occurrence of the peak is t_I. The peak flow of the outflow hydrograph is P_O and the time of occurrence of the peak is t_O. Which one of the following statements is correct?
A
P_I \lt P_O \; and \; t_I \lt t_O
B
P_I \lt P_O \; and \; t_I \gt t_O
C
P_I \gt P_O \; and \; t_I \lt t_O
D
P_I \gt P_O \; and \; t_I \gt t_O
GATE CE 2019 SET-2   Engineering Hydrology
Question 8 Explanation: 


The outflow from the reservoir is uncontrolled therefore peak of outflow hydrograph will occur at the junction of inflow and outflow hydrograph.
P_I \gt P_0
t_I \lt t_0
Question 9
The hyetograph of a storm event of duration 140 minutesis shown in the figure.

The infiltration capacity at the start of this event (t=0) is 17 mm/hour, which linearly decreases to 10 mm/hour after 40 minutes duration. As the event progresses, the infiltration rate further drops down linearly to attain a value of 4 mm/hour at t=100 minutes and remains constant thereafter till the end of the storm event. The value of the infiltration index, \phi (in mm/hour, round off to 2 decimal places), is _______
A
7.24
B
6.44
C
9.26
D
10.64
GATE CE 2019 SET-1   Engineering Hydrology
Question 9 Explanation: 
\begin{aligned} P&=(4+8+15+10+8+3+1) \times \frac{20}{60} \\ &=16.33\; minute \\ Q&=(15-10) \times \frac{20}{60} +(10-8) \times \frac{20}{60} \\ &+(8-6) \times \frac{20}{60} +\frac{1}{2}\times 2 \times \frac{20}{60}+\frac{1}{2} \\ &+\frac{1}{2}\times 2 \times \frac{20}{60}+frac{1}{2}\times 2 \times \frac{20}{60}\\ &=4mm\\ W-index&=\frac{P-Q}{t}=\frac{16.33-4}{\frac{140}{60}}=5.28 mm/hr\\ \text{Since,} \; \phi & \geq W\\ \text{Assume, }\; \phi &=5.28 mm/hr\\ \Rightarrow \; \text{Corrected, }\phi &=\frac{16.33-4-4 \times \frac{20}{60}-3 \times \frac{20}{60}-1 \times \frac{20}{60}}{\left ( \frac{140-30-20-20}{60} \right )} \\ &=7.2475 mm/hr \end{aligned}
Question 10
The total rainfall in a catchment of area 1000\: km^{2}, during a 6 h storm, is 19 cm. The surface runoff due to this storm computed from triangular direct runoff hydrograph is 1 \times 10^8 m^{3}. The \phi _{index} for this storm (in cm/h, up to one decimal place) is ______
A
1
B
0.5
C
1.5
D
2
GATE CE 2018 SET-2   Engineering Hydrology
Question 10 Explanation: 
Surface runoff =\frac{1\times 10^{8}m^{3}}{1000\times 10^{6}m^{2}} =0.1 m=10 cm
Total rainfall = 19cm
Rainfall intensity =\frac{19}{6}=3.167 cm/hr
w-Index = \frac{P-Q}{t} =\frac{\text{Total Infiltration}}{\text{Total duration of storm}}
\therefore \;\; w-Index=\frac{19-10}{6}=1.5 cm/hr
As intensity of rainfall \gt w-Index
And rainfall intensity is uniform therefore \phi-index = w-Index= 1.5 cm/hr.
There are 10 questions to complete.

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