# Railway and Airport Engineering

 Question 1
For a $2^{\circ}$ curve on a high speed Broad Gauge (BG) rail section, the maximum sanctioned speed is 100 km/h and the equilibrium speed is 80 km/h. Consider dynamic gauge of BG rail as 1750 mm. The degree of curve is defined as the angle subtended at its center by a 30.5 m arc. The cant deficiency for the curve (in mm,round off to integer) is ________________
 A 45 B 65 C 57 D 28
GATE CE 2021 SET-2   Transportation Engineering
Question 1 Explanation:
\begin{aligned} \text { Length of curve }&=\text { Radius } \times \text { Degree of curve }\\ \frac{30.5 \times 180}{2^{\circ} \times \pi}&=R\\ R &=873.76 \mathrm{~m} \\ C_{d} &=C_{t h}-C_{a c t} \\ C_{\mathrm{act}} &=\frac{G V^{2}}{127 R}=\frac{1750 \times 100^{2}}{127 \times 873.76}=157.70 \mathrm{~mm} \\ C_{\mathrm{ev}} &=\frac{G V^{2}}{127 R}=\frac{1750 \times 80^{2}}{127 \times 873.76}=100.930 \mathrm{~mm} \\ C_{\mathrm{def}} &=C_{\mathrm{act}}-C_{t h}=157.70-100.930=56.77 \mathrm{~mm} \\ &=57 \mathrm{~mm} \end{aligned}
 Question 2
The longitudinal section of a runway provides the following data:
$\begin{array}{|c|c|} \hline \text { End-to-end runway (m) } & \text { Gradient (\%) } \\ \hline 0 \text { to 300 } & +1.2 \\ \hline 300 \text { to } 600 & -0.7 \\ \hline 600 \text { to } 1100 & +0.6 \\ \hline 1100 \text { to } 1400 & -0.8 \\ \hline 1400 \text { to } 1700 & -1.0 \\ \hline \end{array}$
The effective gradient of the runway (in %, round off to two decimal places) is _____________
 A 0.12 B 0.32 C 0.54 D 0.69
GATE CE 2021 SET-1   Transportation Engineering
Question 2 Explanation:
Assuming RL of start of runway as datum i.e., RL = 0 m)

\begin{aligned} \text { Effective gradient } &=\left[\frac{\text { Maximum difference in reduced level }}{\text { Total runway length }}\right] \\ &=\left[\frac{4.5-(-0.9)}{1700} \times 100\right] \% \\ &=0.3176 \% \simeq 0.32 \% \end{aligned}
 Question 3
For the hottest month of the year at the proposed airport site, the monthly mean of the average daily temperature is 39$^{\circ}C$. The monthly mean of the maximum daily temperature is 48$^{\circ}C$ for the same month of the year. From the given information, the calculated Airport Reference Temperature (in $^{\circ}C$), is
 A 36 B 39 C 42 D 48
GATE CE 2020 SET-2   Transportation Engineering
Question 3 Explanation:
\begin{aligned} T_a&=39^{\circ}C\\ T_m&=48^{\circ}C\\ ATR&=T_a+\left ( \frac{T_m-T_a}{3} \right )\\ &=39+\left ( \frac{48-39}{3}\right )\\&=42^{\circ}C \end{aligned}
 Question 4
The appropriate design length of a clearway is calculated on the basis of 'Normal Takeoff' condition. Which one of the following options correctly depicts the length of the clearway?
 A A B B C C D D
GATE CE 2020 SET-1   Transportation Engineering
Question 4 Explanation:
For normal take off condition:
\begin{aligned} \text{Clearway} &\ngtr \frac{1}{2}(1.5 \; \text{of take off distance}\\ &-1.15 \text{of lift off diatance}) \\ &\ngtr \frac{1}{2}(1.15 \times 1625 -1.15 \times 875) \\ &\ngtr 431.25m \end{aligned}
So clearway is less then for 432 m.
 Question 5
A broad gauge railway line passes through a horizontal curved section (radius = 875 m) of length 200 m. The allowable speed on this portion is 100 km/h. For calculating the cant, consider the gauge as centre-to-centre distance between the rail heads, equal to 1750 mm. The maximum permissible cant (in mm, round off to 1 decimal place) with respect to the centre-to-centre distance between the rail heads is_____
 A 157.5 B 182.6 C 126.4 D 187.6
GATE CE 2019 SET-2   Transportation Engineering
Question 5 Explanation:
For a railway track
$\begin{array}{l}\mathrm{Allowable}\;\mathrm{cant}=\frac{\mathrm G.\mathrm V^2}{127\mathrm R}\;\;\mathrm{where}\;\mathrm V\;\mathrm{is}\;\mathrm{in}\;\mathrm{km}/\mathrm{hr}=100\\\mathrm{Allowable}\;\mathrm{cant}=\frac{1750\times100^2}{127\times895}=157.5\;\mathrm{mm}\end{array}$
 Question 6
For a broad gauge railway track on a horizontal curve of radius R (in m), the equilibrium cant e required for a train moving at a speed of V (in km per hour) is
 A $e = 1.676\frac{V^{2}}{R}$ B $e = 1.315\frac{V^{2}}{R}$ C $e = 0.80\frac{V^{2}}{R}$ D $e = 0.60\frac{V^{2}}{R}$
GATE CE 2017 SET-2   Transportation Engineering
Question 6 Explanation:
$\theta(\text { in } \mathrm{cm})=\frac{G V^{2}}{127 R}=\frac{1.676 \mathrm{V}^{2}}{127 \mathrm{R}} \times 100=1.315 \frac{\mathrm{V}^{2}}{\mathrm{R}}$
 Question 7
A runway is being constructed in a new airport as per the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) recommendations. The elevation and the airport reference temperature of this airport are 535 m above the mean sea level and 22.65$^{\circ}$C, respectively. Consider the effective gradient of runway as 1%. The length of runway required for a design-aircraft under the standard conditions is 2000 m. Within the framework of applying sequential corrections as per the ICAO recommendations, the length of runway corrected for the temperature is
 A 2223 m B 2250 m C 2500 m D 2750 m
GATE CE 2017 SET-1   Transportation Engineering
Question 7 Explanation:
Elevation =535 m
Airport Reference Temperature $=22.65^{\circ} \mathrm{C}$
Runway length correction for $T^{\circ} \mathrm{C} .$
$\Rightarrow$Correction for elevation
$=\frac{7}{100} \times 2000 \times \frac{535}{300}=249.67 \mathrm{m}$
Corrected runway length $=2249.67 \mathrm{m}$
$\Rightarrow$ Corrected standard $T^{\circ}$ at 535 m elevation
$=15^{\circ} \mathrm{C}-(0.0065 \times 535)=11.52^{\circ} \mathrm{C}$
Correction for $T^{\circ}$
\begin{aligned} &=\frac{1}{100} \times 2249.67 \times \frac{\Delta T^{\circ} \mathrm{C}}{1^{\circ} \mathrm{C}} \\ \Delta T^{\circ} \mathrm{C} &=22.65-11.52=11.13^{\circ} \mathrm{C} \\ &=\frac{1}{100} \times 2249.67 \times \frac{11.13^{\circ} \mathrm{C}}{1^{\circ} \mathrm{C}} \\ &=250.39 \mathrm{m} \end{aligned}
$\begin{array}{l} =2249.67+250.39 \\ =2500.06 \mathrm{m} \simeq 2500 \mathrm{m} \end{array}$