Question 1 |

Select the correct statement(s) regarding CMOS implementation of NOT gates.

Noise Margin High (NM_H) is always equal to the Noise Margin Low (NM_L) irrespective of the sizing of transistors. | |

Dynamic power consumption during switching is zero. | |

For a logical high input under steady state, the nMOSFET is in the linear regime of
operation. | |

Mobility of electrons never influences the switching speed of the NOT gate. |

Question 1 Explanation:

(A) NM_H will not be always equal to NM_L
because it depends on transistors parameters
like size

NM_H=V_{IL}-V_{OL}

NM_L=V_{OH}-V_{IH}

Condition for NM_H=NM_L : when V_{TN}=|V_{TP}|\; and \; V_{IP}=\frac{V_{DD}}{2}

If \frac{K_p}{K_n}< > 1 then NM_H\neq NM_L

(B) Due to capacitive leading of stage, dynamic power consumption during switching will not be zero.

(C) For V_{DD}-|V_{TP}|\leq V_{in}\leq V_{DD} [logic high input]

PMOS \rightarrow cut off

NMOS \rightarrow Linear

(D) Mobility of electrons influences the switching speed because

Propagation delay,

\tau _p=\frac{\tau _{PLH}+P_{PHL}}{2}

\tau _{PLH}=\frac{C_LV_{DD}}{\mu _p C_{ox} \frac{W}{L} (V_{GS}\;\; V_{TP})^2}

\mu _p dependent on mobality

Therefore (C) is only correct.

NM_H=V_{IL}-V_{OL}

NM_L=V_{OH}-V_{IH}

Condition for NM_H=NM_L : when V_{TN}=|V_{TP}|\; and \; V_{IP}=\frac{V_{DD}}{2}

If \frac{K_p}{K_n}< > 1 then NM_H\neq NM_L

(B) Due to capacitive leading of stage, dynamic power consumption during switching will not be zero.

(C) For V_{DD}-|V_{TP}|\leq V_{in}\leq V_{DD} [logic high input]

PMOS \rightarrow cut off

NMOS \rightarrow Linear

(D) Mobility of electrons influences the switching speed because

Propagation delay,

\tau _p=\frac{\tau _{PLH}+P_{PHL}}{2}

\tau _{PLH}=\frac{C_LV_{DD}}{\mu _p C_{ox} \frac{W}{L} (V_{GS}\;\; V_{TP})^2}

\mu _p dependent on mobality

Therefore (C) is only correct.

Question 2 |

In the circuits shown, the threshold voltage of each Nmos transistor is 0.6 V. Ignoring the effect of channel length modulation and body bias, the values of Vout1 and Vout2, respectively, in volts, are

1.8 and 1.2 | |

2.4 and 2.4 | |

1.8 and 2.4 | |

2.4 and 1.2 |

Question 2 Explanation:

V_{\text {out } 1}=3-0.6-0.6=1.8 \mathrm{V}

Question 3 |

In the circuit shown, A and B are the inputs and Fis the output. What is the functionality of the circuit?

Latch | |

XNOR | |

SRAM Cell | |

XOR |

Question 3 Explanation:

So, the given logic circuit acts as an XNOR gate

Question 4 |

In the circuit shown, what are the values of F for EN=0 and EN=1, respectively?

0 and D | |

Hi-Z and D | |

0 and 1 | |

Hi-Z and \bar{D} |

Question 4 Explanation:

When E N=0

x_{1}=(\overline{D \cdot 0})=1 \Rightarrow PMOS is in OFF state

x_{2}=(\overline{1+D})=0 \Rightarrow NMOS is in OFF state

Both the transistors are in OFF state, which offers high impedance.

\begin{aligned} \text { When } E N=1: x_{1}&=(\overline{D \cdot 1})=\bar{D} \\ x_{2}&=(\overline{0+D})=\bar{D} \\ F &=D \end{aligned}

Question 5 |

A standard CMOS inverter is designed with equal rise and fall times (\beta _n=\beta _p). If the width of the pMOS transistor in the inverter is increased, what would be the effect on the LOW noise margin (NM_L) and the HIGH noise margin NM_H?

NM_L increases and NM_Hdecreases | |

NM_L decreases and NM_H increases. | |

Both NM_L and NM_H increase. | |

No change in the noise margins. |

Question 5 Explanation:

Making PMOS wider, shifts input transition point (V_{IT}) towards V_{DD}

Making NMOS wider, shifts input transition point (V_{IT}) towards zero.

So, as PMOS made wider, NML increases and NMH decreases.

There are 5 questions to complete.