# Thermodynamic System and Processes

 Question 1
Consider adiabatic flow of air through a duct. At a given point in the duct, velocity of air is 300 m/s, temperature is 330 K and pressure is 180 kPa. Assume that the air behaves as a perfect gas with constant $c_p=1.005$ kJ/kg.K. The stagnation temperature at this point is ______K (round off to two decimal places).
 A 374.71 B 352.24 C 874.65 D 458.32
GATE ME 2021 SET-2   Thermodynamics
Question 1 Explanation:
\begin{aligned} M_{1}&=\frac{V_{1}}{\sqrt{\gamma R T_{1}}}=\frac{300}{\sqrt{1.4 \times 287 \times 330}}=0.823 \\ \frac{T_{o1}}{T_{1}}&=1+\frac{\gamma-1}{2} M_{1}^{2}=1+\frac{1.4-1}{2}(0.823)^{2} \\ \frac{T_{o1}}{T_{1}}&=1.154 \\ T_{01}&=374.7037 \mathrm{~K} \end{aligned}
 Question 2
A rigid insulated tank is initially evacuated. It is connected through a valve to a supply line that carries air at a constant pressure and temperature of 250 kPa and 400 K respectively. Now the valve is opened and air is allowed to flow into the tank until the pressure inside the tank reaches to 250 kPa at which point the valve is closed. Assume that the air behaves as a perfect gas with constant properties $(c_p=1.005\; kJ/kg.K, c_v=0.718\; kJ/kg.K, R=0.287 kJ/kg.K)$. Final temperature of the air inside the tank is _______K (round off to one decimal place).
 A 512 B 248 C 688 D 560
GATE ME 2021 SET-1   Thermodynamics
Question 2 Explanation: $\begin{array}{l} T_{2}=\frac{C_{P}}{C_{V}} T_{1} \\ T_{2}=\left(\frac{1.005}{0.718}\right) \times 400 \\ T_{2}=559.888 \mathrm{~K} \approx 560 \mathrm{~K} \end{array}$
 Question 3
A gas is heated in a duct as it flows over a resistance heater. Consider a 101 kW electric heating system. The gas enters the heating section of the duct at 100 kPa and $27^{\circ}C$ with a volume flow rate of 15 $m^3/s$. If heat is lost from the gas in the duct to the surroundings at a rate of 51 kW, the exit temperature of the gas is

(Assume constant pressure, ideal gas, negligible change in kinetic and potential energies and constant specific heat; $C_p$=1 kJ/kg.K; R=0.5 kJ/kg.K)
 A $32^{\circ}C$ B $37^{\circ}C$ C $53^{\circ}C$ D $76^{\circ}C$
GATE ME 2019 SET-1   Thermodynamics
Question 3 Explanation:
$\dot{\mathrm{m}}\left[\mathrm{h}_{1}+\frac{\mathrm{V}_{1}^{2}}{2000}\right]+\frac{\mathrm{d} \mathrm{Q}}{\mathrm{dt}}=\dot{\mathrm{m}}\left[\mathrm{h}_{2}+\frac{\mathrm{V}_{2}^{2}}{2000}\right]+\frac{\mathrm{d} \mathrm{W}}{\mathrm{dt}}$
where, $\dot{\mathrm{m}}=\frac{\mathrm{P}_{1} \mathrm{V}_{1}}{\mathrm{RT}_{1}}=\frac{100 \times 15}{0.5 \times 300}=10$
Thus,
$10\left[\mathrm{c}_{\mathrm{p}} \mathrm{T}_{1}\right]+101-51=10 \times\left[\mathrm{c}_{\mathrm{p}} \times \mathrm{T}_{2}\right] \qquad\left[\because \mathrm{v}_{1}=0, \mathrm{v}_{2}=0 \text { and } \frac{\mathrm{d} \mathrm{W}}{\mathrm{dt}}=0\right]$
$10 \times 1 \times 300+50=10 \times 1 \times \mathrm{T}_{2}$
$\mathrm{T}_{2}=305 \mathrm{K}=32^{\circ} \mathrm{C}$
 Question 4
During a non-flow thermodynamic process(1-2) executed by a perfect gas, the heat interaction is equal to the work interaction ($Q_{1-2}=W_{1-2}$) when the process is
 A Isentropic B Polytropic C Isothermal D Adiabatic
GATE ME 2019 SET-1   Thermodynamics
Question 4 Explanation:
Given, $\mathrm{Q}_{1-2}=\mathrm{W}_{1-2}$
$\therefore \Delta \mathrm{U}_{1-2}=0$
$\Rightarrow \mathrm{c}_{\mathrm{v}}\left[\mathrm{T}_{2}-\mathrm{T}_{1}\right]=0$
$\Rightarrow \mathrm{T}_{1}=\mathrm{T}_{2}$
So, the process is isothermal.
 Question 5
The volume and temperature of air (assumed to be an ideal gas) in a closed vessel is 2.87 $m^{3}$ and 300K, respectively. The gauge pressure indicated by a manometer fitted to the wall of the vessel is 0.5bar. If the gas constant of air is $R=287\, J/kg\! \cdot \! K$ and the atmospheric pressure is 1 bar, the mass of air (in kg) in the vessel is
 A 1.67 B 3.33 C 5.04 D 6.66
GATE ME 2017 SET-2   Thermodynamics
Question 5 Explanation:
\begin{aligned} P_{g}&=5 \mathrm{bar}=50 \mathrm{kPa} \\ R&=287 \mathrm{J} / \mathrm{kgK}=0.287 \mathrm{kJ} / \mathrm{kg}^{\mathrm{K}} \end{aligned}
Ideas gas equation:
$P V=m R T$
Here P is absolute pressure:
\begin{aligned} P &=P_{a b s}=P_{\text {gauge }}+P_{\text {atm }} \\ &=50+101.325=151.325 \mathrm{kPa} \\ m &=\frac{P V}{R T}=\frac{151.325 \times 2.87}{0.287 \times 300}=5.04 \mathrm{kg} \end{aligned}
 Question 6
Which of the following statements are TRUE with respect to heat and work?
(i) They are boundary phenomena
(ii) They are exact differentials
(iii) They are path functions
 A both (i) and (ii) B both (i) and (iii) C both (ii) and (iii) D only (iii)
GATE ME 2016 SET-1   Thermodynamics
Question 6 Explanation:
Heat and work are boundary phenomenon and depend upon the path followed between initial and final states. Both heat and work are inexact differential since
$\begin{array}{l} \int_{1}^{2} d W \neq W_{2}-W_{1} \\ \int_{1}^{2} d Q \neq Q_{2}-Q_{1} \end{array}$
Hence statement (ii) alone is wrong.
 Question 7
Two identical metal blocks L and M (specific heat = 0.4 kJ/kg.K), each having a mass of 5 kg, are initially at 313 K. A reversible refrigerator extracts heat from block L and rejects heat to block M until the temperature of block L reaches 293 K. The final temperature (in K) of block M is _______
 A 334.36K B 985.6K C 452.6K D 125.6K
GATE ME 2014 SET-4   Thermodynamics
Question 7 Explanation: Given data:
Specified heat,
\begin{aligned} c&=0.4 \mathrm{kJ} / \mathrm{kgK} \text{ each body}\\ \text{Mass:}m&=5 \mathrm{kg} \quad \text { each body } \end{aligned}
Initial temperature,
$T_{1}=313 \mathrm{K} \quad \text { each body }$
Final temprature of block L
$T_{2}=293 \mathrm{K}$
Let $\quad T_{f}=$ Final temperature of block M,
Entropy change of block L
$\Delta S_{L}=m c \log _{e} \frac{T_{2}}{T_{1}}$
Entropy change of block M
$\Delta S_{M}=m c \log _{e} \frac{T_{f}}{T_{1}}$
Entropy change of universe,
\begin{aligned} \Delta S_{\text {univ }} &=\Delta S_{L}+\Delta S_{M} \\ &=mc \log _{e} \frac{T_{2}}{T_{1}}+mc \log _{e} \frac{T_{f}}{T_{1}} \end{aligned}
For a reversible refrigeration,
\begin{aligned} \Delta S_{\text {univ }}&=0 \\ m c \log _{e} \frac{T_{2}}{T_{1}}&+m_{c} \log _{e} \frac{T_{f}}{T_{1}}=0\\ mc \log _{e} \frac{T_{2} T_{f}}{T_{1}^{2}}&=0\\ \text{or}\quad \log _{e} \frac{T_{2} T_{f}}{T_{1}^{2}}&=0\\ \text{or}\quad \frac{T_{2} T_{f}}{T_{1}^{2}} &=e^{0}=1 \\ T_{f} &=\frac{T_{1}^{2}}{T_{2}}=\frac{(313)^{2}}{293}=334.36 \mathrm{K} \end{aligned}
 Question 8
A certain amount of an ideal gas is initially at a pressure $p_{1}$ and temperature $T_{1}$ . First, it undergoes a constant pressure process 1-2 such that $T_{2}$=$3T_{1}/4$. Then, it undergoes a constant volume process 2-3 such that $T_{3}$=$T_{1}/2$. The ratio of the final volume to the initial volume of the ideal gas is
 A 0.25 B 0.75 C 1 D 1.5
GATE ME 2014 SET-3   Thermodynamics
Question 8 Explanation: Process 1-2: Cooling at p=C
$T=\frac{3 T_{1}}{4} \text { given condition }$
$\text{Or} \quad \frac{T_{2}}{T_{1}}=\frac{3}{4}$
According to Charle's law
$\frac{V_{2}}{V_{1}}=\frac{T_{2}}{T_{1}}=\frac{3}{4}$
Process 2-3: Cooling at V=C
\begin{aligned} T_{3} &=\frac{T_{2}}{2} \text { given condition } \\ \frac{\text { Final volume }}{\text { Initial volume }} &=\frac{V_{3}}{V_{1}}=\frac{V_{2}}{V_{1}} \quad \because V_{3}=V_{2} \\ &=\frac{3}{4}=0.75 \end{aligned}
 Question 9
Heat and work are
 A Intensive properties B Extensive properties C Point functions D Path functions
GATE ME 2011   Thermodynamics
Question 9 Explanation:
Heat and work are path function. These are not point function.
 Question 10
If a closed system is undergoing an irreversible process, the entropy of the system
 A Must increase B Always remains constant C Must decrease D Can increase, decrease or remain constant
GATE ME 2009   Thermodynamics
Question 10 Explanation:
If a closed system is undergoing an irreversible process, the entropy of the system can increase, decrease or remain constant
There are 10 questions to complete.

### 1 thought on “Thermodynamic System and Processes”

1. great work,user friendly site, but one suggestion for some questions (like q1) ,please add some explanation like formula name or concept usedlike that 👍👏 